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The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) is an open access peer-reviewed journal committed to publishing high-quality articles in the field of Clinical Medicine, Laboratory Medicine, Basic Medical Sciences and Allied Medical Sciences, public health and global health. The journal is owned by the College of Medical Sciences of the University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria and published by the Scientific Scholar.


Our audience includes biomedical scientists, Nurse Practitioners, Researchers, Clinicians, other medical professionals, and medical students and the general public who are interested in biomedical field.

Review Process

The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) has a highly rigorous double-blinded peer-review process that makes sure that manuscripts are scientifically accurate, relevant, novel and important. Authors disclose all conflicts of interest, affiliations and financial disclosures such that the published content is not biased.

In-house submissions that contain the work of any editorial board member, are not allowed to be reviewed by that editorial board member and all decisions regarding this manuscript are made by an independent editor. In addition, these manuscripts are reviewed by two external reviewers. This is also disclosed in the published manuscript under the section of Conflict of Interest.

Editorial Team

The editorial board comprises a panel of experts in Clinical Medicine, Laboratory Medicine, Basic Medical Sciences and Allied Medical Sciences, public health and global health from various countries to provide their expertise and guidance to the Editor-In-Chief in maintaining the clarity of content and focus of the journal’s purpose.

About the Editors

Prof. Akanimo Essiet, MBBS (Lag), FMCS, FICS, FACS, D.MAS
Department of Urology,
College of Medical Sciences,
University of Calabar,
Calabar, Nigeria,

Prof. Daniel U. Owu, B.Sc. (Hons), M.Sc., Ph.D. (Calabar)
Deputy Editor-in-Chief
Department of Physiology, College of Medical Sciences,
University of Calabar,
Calabar, Nigeria,

Dr. Item J. Atangwho, B.Sc. (Hons.) M.Sc., Ph.D.,
Production Editor
Department of Biochemistry,
Deputy Dean, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences,
University of Calabar,
Calabar, Nigeria

Facts about the Journal

The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) is a peer-reviewed international journal with a double-blind review process. Its frequency of publication is semiannual. The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) is published in E-Journal format and the journal is also available in print on demand.

Scope of Calabar Journal of Health Sciences

CJHS is a peer-reviewed journal which publishes reports of research on health disciplines within the diverse fields of Basic Medical Sciences, Biomedical Engineering, Clinical and Dental Sciences, Climate Change impact on Health; emerging and re-emerging Diseases, Clinical Psychology, Community Medicine, Environmental and Occupational Health, Ethno-phamacognosy, Health Research Ethics, Medical Laboratory Science, Medico-Legal Aspects of Health, Nursing Science, Pharmaceutical Sciences, Primary Health Care, Public Health and Sports Medicine.

The mission of this journal is to publish, promote, educate and spread the knowledge of basic and clinical sciences in a manner that enables readers to clearly comprehend concepts and practices and encourage further researches. The journal publishes original research papers, papers on technical innovations, review articles, case reports, and letters to editors. The journal allows free access to its articles.

About the cover page

Centre Block:  Calabar is the home of the University of Calabar (founded in 1975) and the capital of Cross River State, Nigeria. The metropolis is situated between Latitudes 4º30ʹN and 5º15ʹN and Longitudes 7º30ʹE and 8º15ʹE along the banks of Calabar River and about 50 nautical miles north of Cross River estuary. The city which was the seat of the Niger Coast, Oil River and Southern Protectorates has a rich history steeped in colonialism that reflects the long-standing contact with Europe from early 15th century. The Calabar Slave History Museum is replete with relics of the trade in oil palm products and slaves. Today, the state the city are burgeoning tourist haven in the West African sub-region.

Top Left:  The state is a location of a rich medley of tropical flora, typified by the tropical rain forest vegetation, so expansive and lush that it generates a climate of its own.  It is a virgin habitat for a variety of monkeys, flocks of gaudy plumaged canopy birds, vast underbrush communities of rodents and a wealth of insect lives.

Top Right:  The state is in a region endemic for loaiasis, a lymphatic and blood filariasis transmitted by the bite of the high canopy blood-sucking deer fly (mango fly) of the genus Chrysops.  In infected persons, the adult worm often migrates beneath the conjunctiva (eye worm) or in the subcutaneous tissue, causing itchy fugitive swellings called “Calabar swellings”.

Bottom Right:  The “Calabar beans,” (esere, in Efik), named for the place where the plant was first described, are shelled from pods of a herbaceous legume, Physostigma venenosum.  The seeds have high content of the alkaloid ‘physostigmine’ (eserine), the “ordeal poison”.  In the local folk lore, the seeds were used in the trials of suspects of grave social crimes and witchcraft.  Each suspect was made to chew and swallow a mouthful of the beans or drink a cup of the elixir.  Guilt was usually established by prompt death from poisoning.  Today, eserine as physostigmine salicylate has found its niche in clinical pharmacology as an antidote for reversible inhibition of acetyl cholinesterase activity, reversible of atropine activity and inhibition of anticholinergic drug toxicity of the central nervous system.

Bottom left:  The iconic symbols represent the vast range and usage scopes of the disciplines in the health sciences.

Editorial Policy

It is the policy of CJHS that all manuscripts submitted for publication are reports from original research.  Authors are required to state that the manuscript submitted or one substantially the same has not been published, is neither concurrently under review for publication nor will be published elsewhere.  In all submissions on experimental research involving humans, CJHS requires authors to state that informed consent was obtained from patients or their parents or guardians and that clinical studies has been cleared by the Ethnical Review Committee of the author’s institution and any other relevant health authority.  Protocols and guidelines for the conduct of research on animals must conform to international standard. Statements, views and opinions in manuscripts, communications and advertisements in CJHS represent those of authors or advertisers and who therefore absolutely accept responsibility or liability for such opinions and views and endorse any such products or services.


A manuscript published in the Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) can be read and downloaded by readers all over the world without any charges or fees. The author retains the copyright of the manuscript and the figures. This allows authors to extend their exposure in the world of medical research and get worldwide recognition for their work.

Abstracting and Indexing Information

The journal is registered with the following abstracting partners:

CrossRef, ReadCube, Google Scholar, EBSCO, ProQuest, Portico

Journal Ethics

The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) is committed to meeting and upholding ethical guidelines at all stages of the publication process. We follow the industry associations, such as the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE), International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE), and World Association of Medical Editors (WAME), that set standards and provide guidelines for best practices to meet these requirements. For a summary of our specific policies regarding duplicate publication, conflicts of interest, patient consent, etc., please visit our Ethical Guidelines Section.

Plagiarism Policy

The journal uses plagiarism check software (iThenticate) on the Editor’s and Reviewer’s panel in the manuscript management system which is used to check and control Plagiarism for each article under a double-blinded peer review process. Any manuscript, that is found to have plagiarism is rejected.

Archival Policy

We use PORTICO for our third-party repository for all articles published with us. All our manuscripts are assigned a DOI number from CROSSREF, and we are members of Crossref (

Open Access Publication and Creative Commons Licensing

Calabar Journal of Health Sciences is an open-access journal, and manuscripts published are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-Share Alike 4.0 License (CC-BY-NC-SA 4.0), which allows others to remix, transform, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as appropriate credit is given and the new creations are licensed under the identical terms.

Ahead of Print Policy

Articles published online under the Ahead of Print model are considered published and can be cited and quoted using the DOI as the reference source. The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) has a policy that changes will not be made after publication of an article without following accepted procedures for making corrections to the scientific record.

Subscription Information

The Calabar Journal of Health Sciences (CJHS) is a semiannual publication and published manuscripts in the journal can be read and downloaded by readers all over the world without any charges or fees.

The journal is published in E-Journal format and the journal is also available in print on demand. Journal also offers a Print-on-Demand subscription –


Scientific Scholar LLC ( is a well-respected medical publisher that fully supports open access publishing models, Subscription and Society based journal models through its own in-house peer-review management system – EditorialAssist ( The head office of Scientific Scholar is in Rochester, NY, USA and has a subsidiary arm in India.

The mission of the Scientific Scholar is “Share, Learn and Improve”.